Standlee Barn Bulletin

The Standlee Barn Bulletin is your source for insightful articles about premium western forage and beyond.

Feeding Horses During Disasters

Feeding Horses During Disasters

Horses are routine animals and there are known rules we all abide by when feeding our horses, and one of those is to avoid making rapid feeding changes as this can upset the hindgut microbiome and cause...

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Standlee Premium Products are the Best in Quality

Standlee Premium Products are the Best in Quality

To show the benefit of feeding the highest quality forage or hay-based fiber source for your beloved equine and livestock partners, Standlee Premium Products commissioned two studies through the Purina Animal Nutrition Center facility near St. Louis,...

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Equestrian Terminology and Their Origins – Part 2

Equestrian Terminology and Their Origins – Part 2

Do you ever get confused by horse terms and wonder where they came from? If you don't, we're sure your non-horse friends are baffled by some of the words you use when talking about your beloved horse.

Here is the second...

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What Is Oat Grass Hay and How Can It Benefit Horses?

What Is Oat Grass Hay and How Can It Benefit Horses?

Oats are a type of cereal crop grown for the seed/grain. Oat grains have been fed to livestock for centuries and have long been a sought-after source of energy for horses. Oats are high in starch and fiber, and while...

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Horses are routine animals and there are known rules we all abide by when feeding our horses, and one of those is to avoid making rapid feeding changes\n as this can upset the hindgut microbiome and cause diarrhea and gastric upset. Unfortunately, there are sometimes circumstances beyond our control,\n such as natural disasters. Flood, wildfires, hurricanes and tornadoes are common natural disasters that occur throughout the United States. These events\n can require sudden evacuation and, in turn, rapid changes in the horse’s diet.

\n

When it comes to your horse’s nutrition, here are a few suggestions:

\n\n

Pro Tip: If you end up relocating away from your home, escaping a current disaster, use Standlee’s Find a Store Tool to help you find the nearest farm and ranch retail store to get your animals the consistent, high-quality forage they need.

\n

Pro Tip: All farms should have a written disaster plan to increase the safety and survival of all animals and their caretakers. A good\n map for creating that plan can be found here: https://aaep.org/horsehealth/disaster-planning-horse-farms.

\n

It may be necessary to limit the horse’s intake if feed and hay is scarce due to damage during the disaster. This may result in weight loss but that\n can easily be corrected once safety has been attained and the disaster has passed. It is important, however, to try and maintain fiber in the diet;\n without this, our horses will suffer from gastrointestinal complications long after the disaster has passed.

\n

If you have questions, please contact the nutritionists at Standlee Premium Western Forage, or consult with your veterinarian.

\n
\n

Scientific Reference:\n

\n

*Chagoyán, J.C.V. & Franco, J.G.E. & Winder, L.R.G. & Pliego, A.B.. (2013). Uses of Saccharomyces cerevisiae as feed additive in horse feeding.\n Nutritional Strategies of Animal Feed Additives. 97-104.

", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/feeding-horses-during-disasters", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 660813, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2020-08-18T00:00:00", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=660813&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/what-can-i-feed-my-horse-to-manage-gastric-ulcers", "title": "What are Gastric Ulcers and What Can I Feed My Horse to Help Manage Them?", "postFeaturedImage": "/images/blog/couple_riding_horses.jpg", "metaTitle": "What Can I Feed My Horse to Manage Gastric Ulcers", "metaDescription": "What are Gastric Ulcers and What Can I Feed My Horse to Help Manage Them?", "body": "

The horse has evolved as a grazing animal; forage plays an essential role in equine health. Horses are non-ruminant herbivores, also known as a “hindgut fermenters.” Their digestive tract is made up of a simple stomach, small intestine and large intestine. The natural feeding habit of the horse is to eat small amounts of roughages, often. Domestication has changed this. Modern management practices incorporate stabling, increased grain-based concentrate (higher in energy and lower in fiber than forages and hay) consumption, meal feeding and limited access to pasture. This has led to numerous problems by undermining the horses’ digestive capabilities. One of the most common disorders in horses today is gastric ulcers.

\n

Equine gastric ulcers are caused because gastric acid (hydrochloric acid secreted by parts of the stomach lining), and, to a lesser degree, the digestive enzyme pepsin, irritate the lining of the stomach, causing ulceration. Gastric ulcers are common in horses; their prevalence has been estimated to be as high as 90% depending on the athletic activity of the horse. Foals are also at risk with an estimated 25-50% developing lesions.

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The clinical signs of ulcers are not noticeable in most horses. Of those horses clinically affected, the signs may include poor athletic performance, change in attitude, dull coat, altered eating behavior, weight loss, diarrhea and colic. In foals, teeth grinding (a sign of pain) and excessive salivation are commonly experienced.

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Ulcers are caused by a variety of factors including diet and feeding management. Theses causes can include feeding high levels of grain-based concentrates, not feeding enough forage and not spacing out forage feeding to mimic grazing behavior, as well as chronic use of medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatories.

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The stress of exercise has been shown to induce ulcers within a five to seven day period. Transporting horses and changing management such as mixing groups of horses, can also lead to ulcers. Strenuous exercise moves blood to the muscles and away from the digestive system which can contribute to the problem as well.

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Considering the rate of gastric ulcers in horses today, researchers have investigated several nutritional aspects of the disorder. A study looking at feed type on gastric ulcer formation showed an increased risk of gastric ulcers in young, growing horses consuming high grain diets as compared to a hay diet. After four weeks on the high grain diet, the ulcer scores for the horses had increased by about 30%, and after eight weeks, the scores had increased by about three-fold. Thus, a diet high in fiber appears to promote better digestive health as reflected by the gastric ulcer scores, whereas high grain diets caused greater gastric irritation. Other research has focused on forage type in the mitigation of ulcers and found alfalfa to be more beneficial than grass hay in decreasing ulcer score and severity.

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Dietary supplements aimed at decreasing the risk of ulcers have focused on decreasing acid production in the stomach. Calcium is known for its buffering capacity and the amino acid threonine is known for mucous production (protective layer covering the stomach tissue).

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Standlee offers several Alfalfa forage choices that can aid in decreasing the severity of ulcers by increasing the calcium content of the diet. Alfalfa also contains increased concentrations of threonine compared to other forages which can further increase the protective function of the gut.

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If you have questions, please contact the nutritionists at Standlee Premium Western Forage, or consult with your veterinarian.

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Scientific References:

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Flores, R.S., C.R. Byron, K.H. Kline. 2009. Effects of Feed Type on Growth and Gastric Ulcer Formation in Weanling Horses. J. Eq. Vet. Sci. 29(5):484-485.

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Nadeau, J.A., F.M. Andrews, and A.G. Matthew. 2000. Evaluation of diet as a cause of gastric ulcers in horses. Am. J. Vet. Res. 61:784-790.

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Lybbert, T., P. Gibbs, N. Cohen, B. Scott, and D. Sigler. 2007. Feeding alfalfa hay to exercising horses reduces the severity of gastric squamous mucosal ulceration. In: Proc. Amer. Assoc. Eq. Practnr. 53:525-526.

", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/what-can-i-feed-my-horse-to-manage-gastric-ulcers", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 660791, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2020-08-05T00:00:00", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=660791&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/standlee-products-are-the-best-in-quality", "title": "Standlee Premium Products are the Best in Quality", "postFeaturedImage": "/images/blog/cowboy_with_compressed_bale.jpg", "metaTitle": "Standlee Premium Western Forage® Products are the Best in Quality", "metaDescription": "To show the benefit of feeding the highest quality forage or hay-based fiber source for your beloved equine and livestock partners, Standlee Premium Western Forage® commissioned two studies through the Purina Animal Nutrition Center facility near St. Louis, MO.", "body": "

To show the benefit of feeding the highest quality forage or hay-based fiber source for your beloved equine and livestock partners, Standlee Premium Products\n commissioned two studies through the Purina Animal Nutrition Center facility near St. Louis, MO.

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The studies focused on both the metabolic response and visual quality indicators of the Alfalfa and Timothy Grass hay varieties. In this blog, we will\n be focusing on the visual indicators of quality for our collective education and knowledge.

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To set the stage, Purina published the “Six Signs of Good Quality Hay.” In summary, the following key visual indicators help horse and livestock owners select\n the best quality forage for their animals:

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  1. High Leaf-to-Stem Ratio
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  3. Small Diameter Stems
  4. \n
  5. Few Seed Heads or Blooms
  6. \n
  7. Fresh Smell and Appearance
  8. \n
  9. Cleanliness
  10. \n
  11. Hay Color
  12. \n
\"Standlee\n

Research Overview

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To evaluate the visual quality indicators, Standlee provided Alfalfa and Timothy Grass forage bales grown on their farms in Idaho and Purina Animal Nutrition\n procured locally grown Midwest hay. Both sources were of typical quality grown by Standlee and found in-market in Missouri. Purina surveyed Purina\n personnel and external visitors to their research facility specifically on the latter 3 attributes above, fresh smell and appearance, cleanliness and\n color.

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Visual Quality Results Recap

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Standlee Premium Alfalfa and Timothy Grass consistently scored higher by consumers in all subjective measures (appearance, smell, moisture content, cleanliness,\n etc.).

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Consumers surveyed believe based on appearance that Standlee forages are superior in quality and nutritional value based on the visual indicators versus\n local Midwest hay.

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For nearly 40 years, Standlee farms have carefully managed and cultivated our forage to grow the highest quality crop found in Standlee's bagged and baled\n products. Discover the Standlee Difference to learn more about our processes in the field and at our plant,\n that help create our premium products.

\"Standlee\n
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Scientific References:\n

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Perron, B.S. & Jacobs, Robert & Jerina, M.L. & Gordon, M.E. & Duren, S.. (2019). Comparative assessment of intake and consumer preference\n of Standlee Premium Western Forage Alfalfa hay versus a locally sourced alfalfa hay using objective attributes. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science.\n 76. 96-97. 10.1016/j.jevs.2019.03.136.

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Perron, B.S. & Jacobs, Robert & Splan, Rebecca & Jerina, M.L. & Gordon, M.E. & Duren, S.. (2019). Glucose and insulin response to feeding\n Standlee Premium Western Forage Alfalfa hay versus a locally sourced alfalfa hay. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 76. 89. 10.1016/j.jevs.2019.03.119.

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Stewart, R.L. & Jacobs, Robert & Jerina, M.L. & Duren, S. & Gordon, M.E.. (2017). A comparative assessment of Standlee Premium Western\n Forage Timothy Hay versus “standard” locally sourced hay based on consumer perspective. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science. 52. 98. 10.1016/j.jevs.2017.03.146.

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Stewart, R.L. & Jacobs, Robert & Jerina, M.L. & Duren, S. & Gordon, M.E.. (2017). A comparative assessment of Standlee Premium Western\n Forage Timothy Hay versus locally sourced grass hay using nutrient composition, glucose and insulin response, and palatability. Journal of Equine Veterinary\n Science. 52. 77. 10.1016/j.jevs.2017.03.097.

", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/standlee-products-are-the-best-in-quality", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 660780, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2020-07-30T08:46:47.877", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=660780&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/equestrian-terminology-and-their-origins-part-2", "title": "Equestrian Terminology and Their Origins – Part 2", "postFeaturedImage": "/images/blog/draft_horses_pulling_plow.jpg", "metaTitle": "Equestrian Terminology and Their Origins – Part 2", "metaDescription": "Here is the second part of the series of our favorite horse terms and the history we were able to dig up on them.", "body": "

Do you ever get confused by horse terms and wonder where they came from? If you don't, we're sure your non-horse friends are baffled by some of the words you use when talking about your beloved horse.

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Here is the second part of the series of our favorite horse terms and the history we were able to dig up on them.

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Withers: Though not an uncommon surname, withers in the horse world refer to the high ridge of the back of the horse, located at the lower end of the mane between the shoulder blades. One of the strangest things about this term, is why is it plural when there is only one? This term likely came from the twelfth-century Old High German word widar for \"against or back,\" which also has ties to the Old English word wither, which means \"against, contrary or opposite.\" Considering that horses during this time were commonly used as draft animals, it makes sense that the term referred to the location in which the harness collar rests against when a horse is pulling a plow or wagon. Why we use withers instead of wither remains a mystery to us.

\n\"Girl\n

Mucking: Ever been stuck in the muck? If you are a horse lover, the answer is most likely, yes! The phrase \"mucking out stalls\" starts with the root word muck. Muck came from the mid-13th century Old Norse word myki or mykr for \"cow dung\" that later influenced the Middle English muc or muk. The verb mukken meant \"to dig in the ground\" or \"to remove manure.\" There is also an early reference to Mucker as \"one who removes muck from stables\" and was used as a surname during the 13th century.

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Want to make mucking out stalls easier? Try Standlee’s Horse Fresh.

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Shod: It sounds funny to non-horse owners when you say your horse is shod, but the origin of this term is rather simple. Shod is a past tense and past participle of shoe (flashback to your middle school grammar lessons) and means \"to provide or fit with a shoe or shoes.\" The origins of this term go way back to the origins of shoe before the 2nd century; however, references to shod don't show up in writings until around the 14th century.

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Hinny: A hinny is a domestic equine hybrid that is the offspring of a male horse (a stallion) and a female donkey (a jenny). It is the reciprocal cross to the more common mule, which is the product of a male donkey (a jack) and a female horse (a mare). The hinny is distinctive from the mule both in physiology and temperament. The earliest origins of hinny are unclear, though they seem to be connected to the Latin term hinnus meaning \"mule.\" The Latin term mula was also used over the centuries, but it is unclear why hinny stuck and mula didn't.

\n\"Horses\n

Gaits: There are five natural gaits of horses. These natural gaits include the walk, trot, canter/lope, gallop and back. Many breeds perform these gaits. They include stock horse breeds like the Quarter Horse, Paint Horse, Appaloosa, etc. and hunter or English type horses such as the Thoroughbred, Arabian, Saddlebred, Morgan, etc. The term gait meaning \"manner of walking, carriage of the body while walking\" comes from the mid-15th century and originated with the Old Norse term gata meaning \"way, road, path.\"

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Walk: Slowest of the gaits, the walk is a four-beat gait where each foot hits the ground independently. The pattern of this four-beat walk may be as follows: right front, left hind, left front, right hind or right hind, right front, left hind, left front. This one is pretty clear and ties directly to Old English merger of two verbs that mean \"travel on foot\" used in the 13th century.

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Trot: Second slowest, the trot is a two-beat diagonal gait where the horse's legs work in paired diagonals. The pattern of this two-beat diagonal gait may be as follows: right hind and left front, then left hind and right front or left hind and right front, then right hind and left front. An Old French word, \"trot\" is a derivative of Old High German trotton \"to tread.\"

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Canter/Lope: Second fastest, the canter/lope is a three-beat gait where one pair of feet strike the ground simultaneously and the other two feet land independently. The canter/lope will either be on what is referred to as a right or left lead. If the horse is on the right lead then the hoof pattern is left hind, right hind and left front simultaneously, then right front. The opposite foot pattern represents the left lead as follows: right hind, left hind and right front simultaneously, left front. In general, horses are to be on the right lead when circling to the right and the left lead when circling to the left. Canter is believed to be a contraction of Canterbury. Recorded references to this term from the 1630's refer to the \"easy pace at which pilgrims ride to Canterbury.\" The origins of lope are much earlier, starting in the 13th century from Old Norse hlaupa \"to run, leap, spring up.\"

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Gallop: Fastest of the gaits and although the gallop or run appears to be only a faster canter, it is in fact a different gait containing four beats. Like the canter, the gallop also has a right and left lead. The footfall pattern of the gallop on the left lead is right hind, left hind, right front, left front. Likewise, the right lead footfall would be left hind, right hind, left front, right front. Gallop comes from the 13th century Old French word galloper \"to gallop,\" that is probably from an older Frankish word wala hlaupan that means \"to run well.\"

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Back: When a horse backs naturally without interference from the rider, they perform a two-beat diagonal gait. The back has a similar hoof pattern to that of the trot, only backwards. The footfall pattern of the back might be the right front moves with the left hind and the left front moves with the right hind. The origins of this use of back are a bit tricky as the term has many meanings and has shifted over the centuries. It is however, most likely from the 14th century term abak.

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Sources:

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\n\thttps://www.etymonline.com/\n\t
\n\thttps://ker.com/equinews/whither-withers-horse/\n\t
\n\thttps://www.thesprucepets.com/learn-about-the-meaning-of-the-word-filly-1886634\n\t
\n\thttps://www.learn-about-horses.com/horse-gaits.html/\n\t
\n\thttps://www.myhorseuniversity.com/\n\t
\n\thttps://www.myhorseuniversity.com/single-post/2017/09/25/Natural-and-Artificial-Gaits-of-the-Horse\n

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Oats are a type of cereal crop grown for the seed/grain. Oat grains have been fed to livestock for centuries and have long been a sought-after source of energy for horses. Oats are high in starch and fiber, and while most horses consume and digest them easily, many horses don’t due to their high starch content. Oat plants grown as a cereal crop produce a seed/grain as they mature and energy stores (starch) from the plant are shifted to the grain as it ripens. This is then harvested, and the remaining plant is oat straw, which has very little nutritional value and is high in non-digestible fiber (Cuddeford et al., 1995).

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While oat grains can be detrimental to some horses, oat grass hay is an entirely different story. Oat grass hay is specifically grown as a forage crop similar to timothy or orchard grass and is harvested in an immature growth stage to maximize digestibility. As the seed head has not developed, the starch content of oat grass forage is minimal. When oat grass hay is correctly managed using optimal fertilization programs, we can increase fiber digestion and growth of the plant while minimizing water soluble carbohydrates (Malik et al., 2011).

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When compared to alfalfa cut at the same level of maturity, oat grass hay is lower in crude protein and lower in digestible energy. To improve the protein quality often, oat grass hay is grown with legumes such as alfalfa. This serves to increase essential amino acids such as lysine while further decreasing the non-structural carbohydrate content of the final product (Bagg et al., 2013).

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Standlee Premium Western Forage offers Premium Alfalfa/Oat Grass Forage Cubes in a convenient 40lb bag. These are formed by coarsely grinding Standlee Premium Alfalfa, Standlee Premium Oat Grass and forcing it through a large die with heat, steam and natural bentonite. The blend of both forages provides highly digestible fiber, with moderate protein and low non-structural carbohydrates.

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This product is ideal for growing (moderate to rapid growth) and underweight horses, horses with sensitivity to carbohydrates, horses with gastric ulcers, performance horses, late in pregnancy and lactating mares, breeding stallions and senior horses.

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In summary, it is important to remember that oat grass grown as a forage crop and oats grown as a cereal grain crop have different management and completely different nutritional outcomes, with regards to feeding horses. Visit our Standlee Forage Finder® to find the right type of forage to feed your horse, depending on their age, activity level and if they have any special needs, such as being overweight, carbohydrate sensitive, etc. Use the Standlee Feed Calculator® to assist in balancing your horse’s feed program, depending on how much current hay, grain, beet pulp or oil is being fed, to ensure they are receiving an adequate level of calories and fiber in their diet.

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Standlee recommends consulting with your veterinarian or a nutritionist when changing your animal’s feeding program. Please call our Standlee Customer Service team at 1-800-398-0819 or email customerservice@standleeforage.com, with any additional feeding questions.

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Scientific References:

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    \n\t
  1. Cuddeford, D., 1995. Oats for animal feed. In: Welch, R. W. (Ed.). The oat crop: production and utilization. Chapman & Hall.
  2. \n\t
  3. Malik, R.; Paynter, B.; Webster, C.; McLarty, A., 2011. Growing oats in Western Australia for hay and grain. Dept. Agric. Food. Government of Western Australia, Bull. N° 4798
  4. \n\t
  5. Bagg, J.; Johnston, P., 2013. Summer seeding oats for forage. Field Crop News
  6. \n
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