Standlee Barn Bulletin

The Standlee Barn Bulletin is your source for insightful articles about premium western forage and beyond.

The Scoop on Hay Cubes for Horses

The Scoop on Hay Cubes for Horses

Are you curious about hay cubes? Maybe you’ve had these questions come up, whether you’re a beginner horse owner or veteran, lifelong owner of horses:

  • What are hay cubes?
  • How are hay cubes made?
  • ...
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Cresty Neck – A Precursor to Metabolic Disease in Horses

Cresty Neck – A Precursor to Metabolic Disease in Horses

Obesity is associated with insulin resistance in horses and ponies. Overweight horses also have an increased risk of laminitis, and overweight mares have decreased reproductive function. Human studies show that regional fat deposition, such as abdominal fat,...

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Hay Storage for Safety and to Prevent Losses

Hay Storage for Safety and to Prevent Losses

Forage (fiber) is the most important part of any horse’s diet. The majority of horses get their forage requirements from hay. Most horse owners go to great lengths to ensure their horse grain is stored in a secure location, but...

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Women’s Fashion at the Horse Races

Women’s Fashion at the Horse Races

That was then

Women’s fashion at horse races emerged in the late 1800s at European racetracks such as France’s Auteuil, Longchamp and Chantilly. The races provided a profitable venue for designers to showcase and sell their custom clothing creations to a...

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        "title": "The Scoop on Hay Cubes for Horses",
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        "metaTitle": "The Scoop on Hay Cubes for Horses",
        "metaDescription": "Are you curious about feeding hay cubes to your horses? The following blog post is the scoop on Standlee cubes, made with premium western quality forage.",
        "body": "

Are you curious about hay cubes? Maybe you’ve had these questions come up, whether you’re a beginner horse owner or veteran, lifelong owner of horses:

\n\n

The following is the scoop on Standlee cubes, made with premium western quality forage.

\n

The Making of a Cube

\n

Hay cubes consist of dried forage, such as alfalfa, that is formed into 1.25” wide x 2.5” long rectangular pieces. To make a cube, Standlee Premium Products\n first grows the forage plant to the proper stage of maturity, and then cuts, dries and bales the forage into conventional bales for storage. Throughout\n the year, this baled forage is then coarsely chopped to a fiber length of approximately 2 – 2.5”, mixed with water and bentonite (a natural clay binder).\n Bentonite is an approved horse feed ingredient that is used to prevent the crumbling of cubes prior to feeding (NRC, 2007). The moistened forage is\n then pushed through a dye with pressure to form the cube. Once made, the forage cubes are dried to a moisture level that allows for proper storage.\n Standlee Premium Western Forage currently manufactures certified alfalfa cubes, premium alfalfa cubes,\n alfalfa/timothy grass cubes and alfalfa/oat grass cubes.

\n

Feeding Cubes

\n

The mechanical process of making a forage cube does not change the digestibility of the forage. Therefore, the digestibility of a bale of high-quality\n alfalfa is the same as a cube made with the same high-quality alfalfa. When replacing long-stem baled hay with forage cubes, you would replace one\n pound of hay with one pound of forage cubes.

\n

To swallow and digest a forage cube, the horse must properly chew the cube. If the cube is not properly chewed, the horse can potentially choke. Most horses\n will properly chew forage cubes. However, for any horse that is new or naïve to forage cubes, tends to bolt their feed, or with poor dentition, it\n is recommended to soak the cubes in water prior to feeding them. To properly soak forage cubes, the cubes should be totally submerged in water for\n approximately 30-60 minutes prior to feeding. This will soften the cubes until they dissolve into short pieces of forage fiber.

\n

Types of Horses that Benefit from Forage Cubes

\"Standlee\n

High-quality forage cubes can be beneficial for many different types of horses.

\n\n

Finally, forage cubes can be fed to all types of horses when baled hay is in short supply or when the quality of local hay is marginal. Replacing all or\n part of baled hay with forage cubes will provide high-quality nutrient-rich forage for you horses. Simply replacing 1 pound of baled hay with 1 pound\n of forage cubes will boost forage quality and nutrient intake.

\n

See our nutritional paper, “Why Feed Forage Pellets or Cubes?” for more tips\n on feeding forage cubes and how they can be beneficial for horses and horse owners looking for a convenient forage option.

\n

If you have questions, please contact the nutritionists at Standlee Premium Western Forage, or consult with your veterinarian.

\n

By Dr. Stephen Duren\n
Standlee Nutritional Expert - Performance Horse Nutrition

\n

Featured Products

\n\n
\n

Scientific Reference:\n

\n

NRC, 2007. Nutrient Requirements of Horses, Sixth Revised Edition. National Research Council.

\n

Lybbert TC. Gastric ulcer syndrome in exercising horses fed different types of hay [master thesis]. Texas A&M University, 2007.

", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/the-scoop-on-hay-cubes-for-horses", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 661245, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2021-06-10T00:00:00", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=661245&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/cresty-neck-a-precursor-to-metabolic-disease-in-horses", "title": "Cresty Neck – A Precursor to Metabolic Disease in Horses", "postFeaturedImage": "https://standlee.imgix.net/blog/horse_with_cresty_neck.jpg?auto=format&w=690", "metaTitle": "Cresty Neck – A Precursor to Metabolic Disease in Horses", "metaDescription": "Cresty neck can be a precursor to metabolic disease in horses. In this blog from Standlee Forage cresty neck is explained including the cresty neck scoring system and an infographic.", "body": "

Obesity is associated with insulin resistance in horses and ponies. Overweight horses also have an increased risk of laminitis, and overweight mares have\n decreased reproductive function. Human studies show that regional fat deposition, such as abdominal fat, is more predictive of metabolic disease than\n overall body fat. Currently, the most common system for assessing a horse’s fatness is using body condition scoring (1-9 scale). This method determines\n the overall fatness of a horse but does not differentiate between specific regions of fat. Like abdominal fat in humans, neck crest fat in horses has\n been suggested to be associated with insulin resistance and increased risk for laminitis. Recent research has developed a novel scoring system for\n grading neck crest fatness.

\"Horse\n

The “cresty neck scoring system” is on a scale of 0 to 5, where a score of zero equals no visual appearance of a crest, and a score of five equals enormous\n and permanently drooping to one side. Like the current overall body condition scoring system, the cresty neck scoring system is subjective and requires\n experience in learning to judge condition and practice to obtain consistent values.

\"Standlee\n

Even with these limitations, the cresty neck scoring system has been proven to be a valuable tool when predicting a horse’s risk of metabolic disease.\n An increase in cresty neck score (CNS) was associated with an increase in circulating insulin and a decrease in insulin sensitivity in the equines\n studied. These factors potentially amplify the animals’ risk for an array of metabolic diseases, including laminitis.

\n

Points to consider when implementing any condition scoring system are that horse owners should be trained by someone with experience at scoring animals,\n i.e., your local feed company representative or equine nutritionist. Also, the same person should be assessing the horse each time to be consistent\n and account for variation between people. Perhaps taking a monthly photograph of your horse in the same position each time (best in front of a blank\n wall) would help assess increases or decreases in your horse’s condition.

\n

It is crucial to find convenient, easy-to-use methods for the assessment of regional fatness. While body condition scoring is an accepted method for the\n assessment of overall fatness, neck scoring can standardize the assessment of regional fat distribution on the crest of the neck. This system will\n provide critical information to horse owners to proactively manage their equines to reduce the risk of them developing these devastating diseases.

\n

When dealing with horses or ponies with a CNS of 4 or 5, we must be cautious of feeding diets high in sugar and starch, as these may make any underlying\n risk for metabolic disease worse.

\n

If you have questions, please contact the nutritionists at Standlee Premium Western Forage, or consult with your veterinarian.

\"Standlee\n

Do you enjoy podcasts? Listen to our podcast Beyond the Barn!\n

\n

Learn more about structural and non-structural carbohydrates, what carbohydrate sensitivity is related to horses, metabolic diseases associated with carbohydrate\n sensitivity and cresty neck, in Episode 5: Are Horses Carbohydrate Sensitive. Visit our podcast webpage at https://standleeforage.com/podcast or find us on Apple, Spotify or Google Podcasts to subscribe and listen for free.

\n

By Dr. Tania Cubitt\n
Standlee Nutritional Expert - Performance Horse Nutrition

\n
\n

Scientific Reference:\n

\n

 

\n

Carter, R.A. & Geor, R.J. & Staniar, W.B. & Cubitt, T.A. & Harris, P.A. (2009). Apparent adiposity assessed by standardised scoring systems and morphometric measurements in horses and ponies. The Veterinary Journal. 179. 204-210.\n

", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/cresty-neck-a-precursor-to-metabolic-disease-in-horses", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 661239, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2021-06-08T00:00:00", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=661239&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/hay-storage-for-safety-and-to-prevent-losses", "title": "Hay Storage for Safety and to Prevent Losses", "postFeaturedImage": "https://standlee.imgix.net/blog/hay_storage.jpg?auto=format&w=690", "metaTitle": "Hay Storage for Safety and to Prevent Losses", "metaDescription": "When it comes to hay storage, there are a few things horse owners can do to help guarantee their hay will stay in good condition and have minimal loss and waste.", "body": "

Forage (fiber) is the most important part of any horse’s diet. The majority of horses get their forage requirements from hay. Most horse owners go to great lengths to ensure their horse grain is stored in a secure location, but hay storage is not always held to the same standards. When it comes to hay storage, there are a few things horse owners can do to help guarantee their hay will stay in good condition and have minimal loss and waste:

\n

Do not allow hay to get wet

\n

Water and moisture cause mold and are the biggest culprits in hay losses. Mold and other organisms that grow on hay can make your horse sick. Mold can cause skin allergies and inflammation, as well as respiratory problems. Mycotoxins are harmful compounds produced by molds and these toxins can cause a wide range of clinical signs in horses, including respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and reproductive problems, even death.

\n

Standlee Premium Product packaging is not waterproof due to perforations made in the bags. These tiny piercings made to the bags serve two purposes: to allow air to be released during the packaging process and prevent condensation from developing within the bagged product. This minimizes product damage when stacking products on pallets during the production and delivery process and reduces the chance of mold developing due to condensation. Be sure to store bagged Standlee products in the same environment as baled long-stemmed forage and not out in the weather.

\n

Pest proof your hay storage area

\n

Seal rodent holes and attempt to detour larger wildlife, such as raccoons, from moving in during winter months. Not only do these animals deposit feces which can carry several diseases, including Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), but they can also chew through twine, creating a mess in your hay storage area.

\n

Do not stack hay on the ground

\n

Stacking bales on pallets encourages air circulation beneath the bales and can help prevent the bales from absorbing condensation from the ground. Hay bales stored on wet surfaces can have as much as 50% spoilage. Try not to stack hay directly against a wall, especially an external wall, as this will also decrease air circulation and can heat up hay unnecessarily, potentially causing mold growth. Hay can be stored outside if it is stacked on pallets. Tarps or other coverings should be used to protect bales from dust, sun and moisture.

\n

Minimize the risk of fire

\n

Fire in stored hay may occur from either external or internal causes. Internal heating is a direct result of microorganism activity in hay stored at excessively high moisture levels. Even if excessive heating does not result in a fire, it will reduce forage quality. A caramel smell may indicate that the hay is becoming hot. A metal pipe or rod driven into the center of the stack can be pulled out from time to time to feel for heat. Hay that is extremely hot or beginning to steam, often smolders until the stack is pulled apart, at which time the increased oxygen can cause the bales to burn more rapidly. Moisture and heat should be monitored for about two to six weeks after freshly baled hay is stacked in a barn or shed. When hay temperature remains below 120 degrees Fahrenheit, it is considered safe. The range between 120 and 140 degrees is considered a caution zone in which the hay should be closely monitored. If the temperature rises to 160 or above, a fire is likely. Fire is imminent if interior bale temperatures exceed 175°F and fire is present at temperatures greater than 200°F.

\n

Always use the oldest hay first and rotate your bales so that the oldest hay is in the front of the stack. As long as moisture entry is completely avoided from any direction, and the hay was adequately dry when put into storage, it should keep indefinitely (Table 1). Regardless, it's a good practice to always use older hay first.

\n

Nutrient Content of Stored Hay

\n \"Standlee\n

This is a common horse owner concern. If hay has been stored in a dry environment, it’s suitable for feeding for a long period of time after harvesting. The nutritional value of hay remains relatively constant, whether a horse eats it two months or two years post-harvest.

\n

If hay is baled with a moisture content of 10-15 percent, it should not lose more than 5 percent of its original dry matter during the first year of storage. It will lose very little of its digestible nutrients during that time or in succeeding years. Exceptions – The hay will suffer some loss of carotene, the pre-cursor of vitamin A, following one year of storage. It will also lose vitamin e content within approximately 1 to 2 weeks of cutting and baling.

\n

Large bales stored outside will suffer variable losses, depending upon a combination of factors. These factors include:

\n\n

Long-term storage does increase the dryness of hay, in some instances. Dry hay tends to be more brittle, so more may be wasted during feeding. Hay that has been in storage for longer periods is more prone to accumulation of dust. This is likely due to increased dryness. Total dry matter losses increase with more exposure to environmental conditions (Table 1).

\n\n\t\n\t\n\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\n\t\n\t\n\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\n\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\n\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\t\n\t\t\n\t\n
Table 1. Longevity of Stored Hay
Hay Storage OptionsStorage Longevity (Years)Dry Matter Loss (%)
Conventional Shed204 to 7
Tarped on Pallet54 to 7
On Ground125 to 35
\n

Standlee Western Premium Forage goes to great lengths to ensure their fields are planted, watered and forages are harvested at the peak of nutritional value and quality. Forage is then, immediately upon harvest, either covered on all sides (bottom, top, sides), so no sunlight or weather elements can access the hay, or it is stored in sheds at the plant.

\n

Storage of Standlee bagged products should be handled similarly, keep these bags in a dry area, under cover and away from rodents. In general, feeding hay within 2 years of purchase is recommended. In hot, high humidity climates, moisture content might increase and reduce storage life. In the summer months, do not purchase more bagged product in humid environments than you can comfortably use within a 14-day period. In high heat and humidity, open the corners of the bags or compressed bales to allow heat to escape and allow air to circulate. Do not stack bags more than 3-4 high and leave room between stacks to further allow air circulation.

\n

By Dr. Tania Cubitt
Standlee Nutritional Expert - Performance Horse Nutrition

\n
\n

References:

\n", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/hay-storage-for-safety-and-to-prevent-losses", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 661208, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2021-04-27T11:20:52.553", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=661208&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/womens-fashion-at-the-horse-races", "title": "Women’s Fashion at the Horse Races", "postFeaturedImage": "/images/blog/kentucky_derby_fashion.jpg", "metaTitle": "Women’s Fashion at the Horse Races", "metaDescription": "Women’s fashion at horse races emerged in the late 1800s and has evolved over the years.", "body": "

That was then

\n

Women’s fashion at horse races emerged in the late 1800s at European racetracks such as France’s Auteuil, Longchamp and Chantilly. The races provided a profitable venue for designers to showcase and sell their custom clothing creations to a mass audience of well-to-do women, keen to be seen.

\n

Courtiers would hire models to wear their latest creations at racing events to draw women’s attention, create media buzz and get feedback as to popular styles preferred by clientele.

\n

Racetrack “runways” influenced modern fashion industry development and established Paris as the world’s fashion capital.

\n

Early racetrack fashion eschewed function for status and style. Long dresses were most commonly worn with extensive embellishments such as lace, embroidery, pintucks, ruffles, and ribbons. Accessories included long gloves and ornately adorned hats with large brims.

\n
\n\t\"Historic\n\t
Photo Credit: FOTO: FORTEPAN/ Magyar Bálint
\n
\n

Coming to America

\n

Col. Meriwether Lewis Clark Jr. is credited with bringing European-influenced horse race fashion to the United States.

\n

After attending and being inspired by Derby races in England and France’s Grand Prix de Paris in 1872, Clark spearheaded the opening of Churchill Downs, near Lexington, KY, and the inaugural Kentucky Derby in 1875.

\n

Clark’s vision for The Kentucky Derby was that of an elite social gathering much like England’s esteemed Epsom Derby, with attendees clad in attractive formal attire, including beautiful hats. His goal was to transform American horse racing tracks’ focus from drinking and gambling and elevate it to a chic fashion-forward celebration. Consequently, the dress code of “full morning dress” was adopted for women and men attending Churchill Downs’ races.

\n

To bolster attendance, Clark and his wife invited wealthy stylish Louisville women to picnic with like-minded friends at the races. His brilliant ploy worked. The first Kentucky Derby propelled American racetracks into the style stratosphere with men and women embracing the European inspired race dress code.

\n

Fast forward to the 1960s when wearing hats fell out of vogue in mainstream fashion, with the exception of the Kentucky Derby. Swinging 60s horse racing fashion galloped in with elevated hat designs, commanding center stage. ‘Chapeau’ (French for hat or another covering for the head) styles morphed to more extravagant, intricate, playful and avant-garde designs flaunting flamboyant colors and wider brims.

\n

This is now

\n

Throughout the world, the celebration of women’s fashion at horse races continues today, including Churchill Downs’ Kentucky Derby. Typical Derby attire includes sundresses, suits, separates, and even jumpsuits in hues that range from Easter egg pastels to intense brights.

\n

The Run for the Roses hat fashions continues to reign supreme with everything from chic and sophisticated to humorous and eccentric.

\n\"Women\n

Below are some horse racing fashion videos showcasing current styles. We think Col. Clark would approve and be delighted to know his Kentucky Derby fashion celebration continues to thrive in modern times!

\n

Race Day Best Dressed Ladies – Fashions on the Field Behind the Scenes

\n
\n\t\n
\n

An inspiring behind-the-scenes peek as ladies vie for the title “best dressed” at a race racing competition.

\n\n

What to Wear to the Races // 8 Summer Occasionwear Dresses | Fashion Mumblr

\n
\n\t\n
\n

A race day what-to-wear dress guide by Fashion Mumblr, one of YouTube’s most popular fashion influencers.

\n

Standlee Forage at the Races

\n

Racehorse trainers nationwide choose Standlee Forage bagged forage like Premium Alfalfa Cubes and/or Premium Alfalfa/Timothy Cubes to support their horses’ health, performance and well-being.

\n

They especially appreciate the alfalfa-based bagged forage benefits in supporting gastric ulcer prevention and a healthy respiratory system.

\n

For help choosing the appropriate Standlee Forage for your horse’s needs, use our handy Forage Finder.

", "urlWithHost": "http://standleeforage.com/standlee-barn-bulletin/womens-fashion-at-the-horse-races", "rating": 0.0, "commentsCount": 0, "trackbacksCount": 0 }, { "id": 661150, "type": "BlogsPosts", "date": "2021-03-02T14:03:06.8", "author": "Jessica Wright", "authorPictureUrl": "/CatalystImages/UserProfileDefault.jpg", "trackbackUrl": "http://standleeforage.com/BlogRetrieve.aspx?BlogID=11741&PostID=661150&A=Trackback", "url": "/standlee-barn-bulletin/feeding-cattle-winter-forage-to-spring-grass-transition", "title": "Feeding Cattle – What You Need to Know About Forage, Winter and Spring Grass Transition", "postFeaturedImage": "/images/blog/cattle_grazing_spring.jpg", "metaTitle": "Feeding Cattle - Winter Forager to Spring Grass Transition", "metaDescription": "What you need to know about transitioning cattle from winter forage to spring grass and pasture by Standlee Expert Dr. Stephen Duren.", "body": "

Cattle are ruminant animals, meaning they have a four-compartment stomach that is designed to ferment and digest plant fiber (pasture/hay). The intricate stomach design retains fiber long enough so bacteria and other microorganisms can ferment and digest it. This fiber digestion process allows for massive fiber intake, followed by hours of regurgitating, re-chewing and re-swallowing of the partially digested fiber.

\n

With a digestive system uniquely designed to digest fiber, cattle rely heavily on quality fiber to satisfy their nutrient requirements. Cattle are capable of a daily fiber intake of up to 3% of their body weight. With this high fiber intake, cattle can easily satisfy their calorie and protein requirements when fed high-quality fiber (pasture/hay). Add free-choice supplementation with a trace mineral salt designed for cattle, along with fresh clean water, and nutrient requirements are satisfied. Cattle are notorious for being able to consume poorer quality fiber including tall, dry, mature pasture plants. They are also capable of eating “cow hay” which is a term that describes baled hay that was cut past optimum maturity and may have weather damage from outside storage conditions. When cattle consume these poorer quality fiber sources, their voluntary intake decreases to 2 – 2.5% of body weight. Since quality of fiber and intake is reduced, the cattle will require additional energy, protein and mineral supplementation to satisfy nutrient requirements. These nutrients are typically supplied by supplementing a portion of the diet with high-quality forage, such as alfalfa, or by providing free-choice access to molasses-based lick tubs with protein and minerals added to them.

\n

Feeding Cattle in Winter

\n

Many areas of the country are experiencing unprecedented cold, snowy weather. One of the major concerns for feeding cattle during extreme weather conditions is keeping them warm and as comfortable as possible. The solution to keeping them warm and comfortable lies within their digestive system. Rumen bacteria are not 100% efficient when they ferment fiber; a by-product of this fermentation process is heat. The heat produced from less than 100% efficient plant fermentation helps to keep cattle warm and comfortable. Cattle can have snow on their backs and be out in cold, windy weather and be completely warm if their rumen is full of forage to ferment. So, offering high-quality, free-choice hay is the best solution. Determining which forage type to select for cattle in the winter depends on the nutrient requirements of the cattle.

\n

Alfalfa Forage

\n

Feeding mature cows that calved in the fall and are producing milk, or cows that are due to calve early in the spring, both have high protein and energy requirements. These cows benefit from the high protein and energy content of alfalfa forage. Similarly, if feeding yearling steers or replacement heifers that are not being supplemented with grain and protein supplements, alfalfa forage is the ideal choice to help provide nutrients for growth.

\n

Grass Forage and Mixed Forage

\n

Grass forages (timothy and orchard grass) or mixed (grass/alfalfa) forages are the best choice to feed to cows that are not due to calve until late in the spring. These cows have lower nutrient requirements in the winter since they are not yet in late pregnancy, when the bulk of fetal development occurs. Grass hay or mixed grass/alfalfa hay is also a great choice for growing cattle, including show cattle, that are being fed a grain concentrate fortified for growth. Finally, mature bulls are often fed the lower calorie grass hay during winter months to help control weight gain that can occur when bulls are not actively breeding.

\n

Transitioning to Spring Grass

\n

When spring grass finally arrives, the first reaction is to turn cattle out on pasture and quit feeding hay. Unfortunately, spring grass can contain an abundance of water and grass can be in short supply. This situation will result in cattle filling up on water without getting adequate fiber and nutrients. A solution to this issue, is to limit feeding grass hay (timothy or orchard grass) at a rate of 1% of body weight for approximately two weeks. This provides cattle with useable fiber and nutrients until the water content of the grass has decreased and the volume of grass has increased. If cattle are not supplemented with a small amount of forage during the early spring when pasture is just starting to grow, they will lose body condition and may have trouble getting pregnant. In the case of growing cattle, they may go through a period of time when they will not grow properly.

\n

If you have questions, please contact the nutritionists at Standlee Premium Western Forage, or consult with your veterinarian.

\n

By Dr. Stephen Duren
\nStandlee Nutritional Expert - Performance Horse Nutrition

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